Material Science and Metrology

  1. What is Gibb’s phase rule? Explain its importance.
  2. Draw microstructure of (i) 04 % carbon steel and (ii) eutectoid steel at room temperature.
  3. Draw iron – iron carbide equilibrium diagram with all necessary details. Briefly explain cooling of 1.2 % carbon steel from liquid state to room temperature.
  4. Discuss the advantages, disadvantages and limitationsof powder metallurgy.
  5. Discribe with neat sketch how would you carry out a Jominy harden ability test on a steel sample.
  6. Briefly explain why ferritic and austenitic stainless steels are not heat treatable.
  7. Distinguish between hardness and harden ability
  8. Draw TTT diagram for eutectoid steel. Explain it briefly by considering few cooling rates.
  9. Differentiate between austempering and martempering.
  10. Case carburizing heat treatment is not generally carried out for medium carbon steels. Why?
  11. Explain allotropic transformation of iron.
  12. What is solid solution? Discuss in brief types of solid solution with neat sketch.
  13. What are the factors affecting hardnability?
  14. What is cooling curve? How does the time temperature cooling curve of an alloy of eutectic composition different from that of a pure metal?
  15. Explain with neat sketches the arrangement of atoms in B.C.C, F.C.C. and C.P. lattice. Define unit cell. Show that a F.C.C. structure is always more close packed than B.C.C. structure.
  16. Explain use of Galvanic series
  17. Explain with neat sketches steps involved in preparing specimen for microscopic examination.
  18. Enlist methods of manufacturing metal powder. Discuss any one in detail.
  19. Explain modified aluminum silicon alloys.
  20. How will you classify brasses based onthe composition of zinc Explain the properties & application of the main type of brasses.
  21. Explain Cathodic protection against corrosion.
  22. Enlist properties of a good bearing material.
  23. Enlist different method of metal coating for corrosion prevention. Discuss any one in detail.
  24. Classify types of cast iron. Discuss any on. Draw its microstructure also.
  25. Explain flame-hardening process in brief


  1. Define 1) Toughness 2) Hardness 3) Hardenability 4) Malleability 5) Creep 6) Elasticity 7) Ductility.
  2. Discuss selection criteria for materials used in engineering applications.
  3. Draw Iron-Carbon Diagram and explain eutectic reaction in it.
  4. Explain the effects on steel by alloying elements Silicon, Sulphur, Magnesium and Phosphorous.
  5. Explain properties and application of Wrought iron.
  6. Explain the Spark Test and Magnetic test for metallic materials.
  7. Write the procedure for Jominy end quench practicaland discuss its conclusion.
  8. Explain the difference between Annealing and Normalizing.
  9. What is phase diagram? Explain Lever rule.
  10. Differentiate between white cast iron and grey castiron.
  11. Give composition and use of White metal and Monel metal.
  12. Enlist the products made from powder metallurgy. Explain all four steps of power metallurgy.
  13. Explain structure and properties of Malleable cast iron.
  14. Which non-destructive test is used for finding defects on welded joints? Explain it.
  15. Explain cathodic protection against corrosion.
  16. Explain principle and procedure of Ultrasonic test.
  17. Explain metal and organic coatings.


  1. State the importance of study of materials science and briefly. Explain Engineering requirements of materials.
  2. Explain selection criteria for engineering materials.
  3. Evaluate “After etching the micro specimen structure is visible”. Also Write a short note on macro- examination.
  4. What is non destructive test? List various non destructive tests. Explain X-Ray Radiography.
  5. What is Gibb’s phase Rule? Define system phase and degree of freedom so that the degree of freedom eutectic point in a binary phase diagram is zero.
  6. What is powder metallurgy? Describe various steps involved in powder metallurgy with each step controlling properties of final sintered component
  7. Which are merit and demerit and application of powder metallurgy.
  8. Give composition properties and uses of malleable cast iron
  9. What are the purpose of Alloying ? Give effects of nickel as an alloying element.
  10. What are the purposes of heat treat. Differentiate between annealing and non normalising
  11. Which are various surface hardening processes? Explain induction hardening process with sketch
  12. What are the factors affecting rate of corrosion? Explain the hydrogen evaluation & oxygen Absorption mechanism of corrosion.
  13. Discuss the cathodic protection method of corrosionprevention For underground pipelines
  14. Explain Ultrasonic Testing with Advantages and limitation.
  15. What is “ Wrought iron “? enlist the properties and uses of It.
  16. Define critical cooling Rate of steel and show the same on a TTT diagram with complete labelling
  17. What are the properties of bearing alloys
  18. What are the properties of aluminium alloys


  1. Name at least one application of following engineering properties of material.
    • Hardness (ii) Toughness    (iii) Creep Strength         (iv) Plasticity      (v) Stiffness
  2. What is modulus of elasticity? Draw stress strain diagram for Mild Steel and Cementite.
  3. State Critical Reactions of Iron Carbon Phase diagram.
  4. Say at point “Q” in (Liquid+Solid) region in a phase diagram, a line passing through point “Q” and parallel to the base is drawn. The line intersects the  liquidus and solidus at points P and R respectively. Can you determine %Solid at  point Q if PR is 6 cm and QR is 2.4 cm in length? If answer is YES, determine %  Solid and if NO, justify your answer.
  5. Draw the three most commonly observed space lattices in Metals.
  6. Write full names of following acronyms: BHN ; AISI ; ASTM ; TTT
  7. What is the significance of Liquidus, Solidus and Solvus line in phase diagram?
  8. What is coring? Why it is observed?
  9. Draw cooling curve of (i) pure metal and (ii) Analloy of two metals which are completely soluble in liquid and solid phase.
  10. State the difference between impurities and alloying elements. State importance of alloying.
  11. What is metallography? What useful information can be obtained from it?
  12. Specify, with reasons alloy suitable for the manufacture of : Bolts and Nuts ; Lathe Bed ; Milling Cutter
  13. State function of following alloying elements in steel : Sulphur ; Nickel ; Chromium ; Boron
  14. What is micro examination of metal? What are thevarious steps required for such an examination?
  15. State composition and specific applications of : Muntz metal ; German silver ; Naval brass
  16. Differentiate Annealing and Normalising on the basis of Rate of Cooling (ii) Microstructure after cooling (iii) Grain size distribution (iv) Internal Stresses (v) Mechanical properties and (vi) Applications.
  17. Draw microstructure of eutectoid steel.
  18. Explain in brief: Factors affecting formation of solid solution
  19. It is required to obtain very thin hardened surfaces on gears of automobiles. Suggest suitable methods with salient features.
  20. Draw microstructure of eutectic cast iron.
  21. State effect of grain size on mechanical properties of material.
  22. Explain the NDT method widely used for inspection of castings.
  23. Explain in brief: Sintering Process
  24. State and explain principle of cathodic protection.
  25. Define Powder Metallurgy. State advantages, limitations and applications of Powder Metallurgy.
  26. Suggest and explain a simple and economical NDT method to determine minute surface defects in large size component.
  27. Write short note on Metallic coatings.


  1. State the importance of study of “Materials Science” and briefly explain “Engineering Requirements” of materials.
  2. What is Gibb’s phase rule? Define system, phase anddegree of freedom.
  3. Show that the degree of freedom at eutectic point in a binary phase diagram is zero.
  4. With the aid of steel portion of an iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram, showing solid state transformations compare the transformations during  cooling under equilibrium conditions from solidus to room temperature of  typical hypereutectoid steel and hypoeutectoid steels. Compare the  resulting microstructure at room temperature and related properties.
  5. Evaluate: “After etching the micro specimen structure is visible”. Also write a short note on “Macro-examination”.
  6. The following data is for Pb-Sn alloy system : (Lead-Tin Solder)
    • Melting point of lead (Pb) – 327⁰C
    • Melting point of Tin (Sn) – 232⁰C
    • Eutectic alloy is formed at 183⁰C with 62% Sn –38% Pb
    • Maximum solid solubility of tin in lead at 183⁰C –19%
    • Maximum solid solubility of lead in tin at 183⁰C –3%
    • Maximum solubility of tin and lead at room temperature is negligible.

Draw the phase diagram with the help of above data and label all the points, lines and regions on it.

For 70%Pb – 30%Sn alloy composition, determine the amounts of

  1. proeutectic and eutectic constituents at room temperature.
  2. What are the factors affecting rate of corrosion? Explain the hydrogen evaluation & oxygen absorption mechanism of corrosion.
  3. Define “Alloy”. Also state composition, properties & uses of any two  copper alloys.
  4. Differentiate between gray cast iron & spheroidalcast iron in terms of microstructure, properties, composition & applications.
  5. Discuss the Cathodic protection method of corrosionprevention for underground pipelines.
  6. Define Critical Cooling Rate of steel and show the same on a TTT diagram with complete labelling.
  7. List the purposes of heat treatment. Differentiate between annealing & normalizing.
  8. Discuss mechanisms of quenching of steel. State theadvantages and drawbacks of water & oil as quenching media.
  9. What is “Wrought Iron”? Enlist the properties and uses of it.
  10. State the advantages or importance of nondestructive testing over destructive testing of materials. Differentiate between X-ray radiography & γ-ray radiography of materials
  11. What is powder metallurgy? Describe various steps involved in powder metallurgy with each step controlling properties offinal sintered component.
  12. Explain Ultrasonic method of inspection with reference to its working principle, advantages, limitations & applications.
  13. Give advantages, limitation & applications of powder metallurgy.
  14. Give differences between metals and non metals.
  15. Define (1) Creep, (2) Malleability (3) Hardness
  16. Which are advantages and limitations of powder metallurgy?
  17. What is non destructive test? List various non destructive tests.
  18. Explain X ray Radiography.
  19. Explain selection criteria for engineering materials.
  20. List properties of wrought Iron.
  21. Define (1) Creep, (2) Malleability (3) Hardness
  22. Define Allotropy. Explain allotropy of Iron.
  23. Draw Iron Carbon Equilibrium diagram.
  24. Give composition, properties and uses of malleable cast iron.
  25. Draw neat sketch of metallurgical microscope. Explain its construction.
  26. What is solid solution? Explain types of solid solution. Also give Hume Rothery’s Rules.
  27. Give composition, properties and uses of Y alloy.
  28. What is cathodic protection?
  29. What are the purposes of alloying? Give effects of Nickel as an alloying element.
  30. Give composition and uses of Monel metal and Nichrome.
  31. Explain Ultrasonic testing with advantages and limitations.
  32. Which are various Surface Hardening processes? Explain Induction Hardening process with sketch.
  33. Explain any two methods for production of metal powders.
  34. Which are the objectives of Heat Treatment?
  35. Give difference between Annealing and Normalising.
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